Copyright © 1995-2020 Farms.com, Ltd. All Rights Reserved. Herbicides will be ineffective if applied when the plant is under stress. Plants are erect and usually around 3-4' in height, although they can grow larger. The first leaves that grow from this particular variety are rounded. The three species are discussed together because they are difficult to distinguish from one another in the field, have similar life cycles and habits of growth, and present similar management challenges in crop production. Identifying Pigweed. While similar to other types of pigweed, mature redroot pigweed can be distinguished by its comparatively tall … Reading Time: 2 minutes Redroot pigweed can be a tough customer. Redroot pigweed grows in cultivated fields, pastures, roadside ditches, and undeveloped areas. (Top) injury to a redroot pigweed plant treated with 200-grain vinegar (636 L/ha) at the four-leaf stage, 3 d after treatment. Redroot pigweed stem (left). upright plant 1 – 6 feet tall with thick stems … Agricultural Weed ID for New York State. Dense planting helps control this weed in crops that will tolerate high density. Most herbicide labels do not distinguish between redroot, green or smooth pigweed with respect to efficacy or rate. Seeds are glossy black, rounded with convex sides. Better to include herbicide with residual activity in addition to dicamba, glufosinate, or 2,4-D (Atrazine, Callisto (or other mesotrione product), metolachlor, acetochlor or Zidua/Anthem) Avoid glyphosate or ALS inhibitors; 4. Spiny amaranth can be differentiated from Palmer amaranth and waterhemp due to the presence of sharp spines at the point where leaves attach to the stem. Always look for hairs at the top of the plant near the newest growth. Biological Control . Identify the problem. A number … Good cultural control practices will help the crop compete against weeds and ensure that resistant weed populations are held in check or reduced. English: carelessweed; common amaranth; redroot; Spanish ... Watson and A. bouchonii Thell.) Redroot grows up to 1 metre tall but is often low growing and spreading. Powell amaranth seedhead (middle). Make sure when you are seeding a new area you are doing so with certified weed-free seeds. It often survives your best early-control efforts and ends up towering over soybean fields in August and September. The stems are erect, light green, stout, branched, 60-90 cm (1-3 ft.) high, rough, and angular. … Leaves are round to oval in shape and have prominent veins; both leaves and stems are covered in fine hairs (pubescent). The seeds are called “hard.” It is another dormancy mechanism. Fruits The single-seeded fruits are tiny capsules, roughly less than 1/17 of an inch (1.5 mm) long and open around the middle by a caplike lid to release the seed. Less common weedy pigweeds of Iowa fields include Powell amaranth and spiny pigweed. Description. The seed of Redroot Pigweed are the first of the three pigweeds to mature. Redroot pigweed leaf (left). Trying to control older and larger plants is much more difficult and time consuming, therefore timely application is critical. with phytophagous insects, fungal pathogens and crop management. Powell amaranth stem (right). At first glance, this would not appear to be a soft underbelly since single pigweed plants can produce 300,000 seeds or more. Field Crops Toggle the sub-menu. The flowers, also known as spikes in this particular variety of pigweed, are typically longer and narrower with minimal but longer branches. Anti-oxidizing Properties Pacifico et al., (2008) studied the antioxidant activity of the methanolic extract of redroot pigweed. Crops and Soils, 23:13-14. Reference to commercial products or trade names does not imply endorsement by MSU Extension or bias against those not mentioned. One of the biggest broadleaf weed problems growers across the country face is the pigweed family: spiny, smooth and redroot pigweed; Palmer amaranth; waterhemp; and several other species. Redroot pigweed seedling (left). Mature plant. 2 nutritious, as human food, livestock feed or for wildlife. Cytogenetic studies in Amaranthus. Seedlings of the two species are difficult to differentiate and the presence of a reddish-pink root is not a reliable characteristic for differentiating redroot pi . Seeds of redroot pigweed, wild mustard, shepherd's-purse, and field pepperweed often have seed coats impermeable to water, oxygen, or both. Prostrate pigweed (bottom, right in photo) forms dense mats, has dark glossy green leaves with distinctive light colored edges, and often pink or red tinged stems. Powell amaranth leaf (middle). Both the fresh or dry pigweed leaves can be used to making tea. Hybrid pigweed is typically sterile with oddly shaped flower spikes that stay green much longer after non-hybridized pigweed have turned brown. Lower stems are usually thick, stout and smooth; upper stems are covered with many short, fine hairs. Issued in furtherance of MSU Extension work, acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Agriculture. It is also regularly referred to as common pigweed. It is a common annual weed, producing many seeds that remain viable for up to 5 years. Integrated Pest Management Reviews, 2(2):51-59; 3 pp. Palmer amaranth stem. With a Group 14 chemistry, it delivers burndown of tough broadleaf weeds in as few as 3 to 5 days. It develops lateral shoots that allow it to form tall clumps. The seed of Smooth Pigweed are the last of the three pigweeds to mature. They emerge, grow, flower, set seed, and die within the frost-free growing season. Redroot pigweed spreads only by seed. There are several species of pigweed that are very similar in looks, control methods and locations they can be found. Plant high-yielding varieties adapted to your particular climate, soil, and field conditions. Fortunately, redroot pigweed is a plant that can be controlled by frequent, yearly mowing, and hand-pulling of large plants. Pigweed, redroot description. Palmer amaranth, waterhemp and spiny amaranth have hairless (glabrous) stems. All varieties can be quite simply branched, or with many branches, standing as tall as 1.5m in height. Don't delay hand-pulling pigweed seedlings. Older plants are sometimes able to recover from partial damage if the root has not been completely severed. The stems have a reddish colour when mature. The leaves are simple, alternate, dull green, with hairs on the veins on the underside. Use residual herbicides to control early-emerging pigweed, but … Well developed root system with shallow red roots. Redroot pigweed (Figure 9) has short, dense hairs, while Powell amaranth (Figure 12) can be sparsely to densely hairy. Potential Damage and Economic Impact. Well developed root system with shallow red roots. The lower stem and taproot are reddish colored. The seed coat can be changed (often referred to as broken) by scarification, action of acids, or microbes. The first leaves that grow from this particular variety are rounded. It bears inconspicuous flowers from June to November. Making the varieties of pigweed even harder to tell apart, they have been known to create hybrid varieties with one another. Email Print. Solutions . Burgos NR, Talbert RE, 1996. Redroot pigweed grows in cultivated fields, pastures, roadside ditches, and undeveloped areas. Mechanical … Redroot pigweed is distinguished from smooth pigweed by its coarse, harsh inflorescence (ontarioweeds.com). This section contains information on identification of the different life stages of Redroot Pigweed. Pigweeds are an annual plant that germinates by the release of their seeds starting in late winter until summer. Redroot pigweed … Propagation. Redroot Pigweed is the most commonly known variety of pigweed. Figure 5. When possible, use narrow row spacings and high plant populations. Redroot pigweed is a summer annual that reproduces only by seed. BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES TO CONTROL HERBICIDE RESISTANT WEEDS IN CARROT PRODUCTION 4 GREEN PIGWEED (AMARANTHUS POWELLII) Caption: Young green pigweed plant Young green pigweed … However, the rapid spread of herbicide-resistant weeds has required farmers to incorporate alternative weed […] Smooth pigweed seedhead (right). Tumble pigweed (top, left) flower clusters only grow between the stem and leaf stalks, rather than in spikes as found in other pigweeds such as palmer amaranth (top, right). Prevention of pigweed is less expensive and less time-consuming than trying to control it. Apply post herbicide when pigweed is small (<4 inches tall). Leaves are hairy beneath, at least on the whitish veins. Brenan JPM, 1961. Redroot pigweed has a tall, usually erect habit, commonly found growing 2 to 4 feet tall. Field Crops Toggle the sub-menu. Resistance to Group 2, 5, 6 and 7 herbicides exists in Ontario. For large infestations, use appropriate herbicides. Redroot pigweed (Latin name Amaranthus retroflexus) is an annual weed found throughout Ontario in cultivated fields, gardens, pastures, waste places, roadsides and, according to the Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs, nearly any other disturbed area. Seedlings of the two species are difficult to differentiate and the presence of a reddish-pink root is not a reliable characteristic for differentiating redroot pi. Rough pigweed is difficult to eradicate when once established, so management should be aimed at preventing establishment. “They are relatively short-lived in the soil,” Bradley says. It is also regularly referred to as common pigweed. Tumble pigweed has a shrubby growth habit, and prostrate pigweed extends its stems parallel to the ground (this is often a sidewalk-crack rather than an agricultural weed). 5. That’s low compared to many weeds. Cotyledons are linear with a prominent midvein and reddish tinted undersides. Miscellaneous: Redroot pigweed was the dominant Amaranthus species in Iowa prior to the 1980’s, but was replaced by common waterhemp following the introduction of ALS inhibiting herbicides and the spread of herbicide resistance. Integrated Weed Management (IWM) means integrating multiple weed control tactics into a single weed management program, optimizing control of a particular weed problem. Here are some general guidelines: 1. Powell amaranth (A. powellii S. Redroot pigweed stem (left). The green flowers pigweed plants produce sits in small clusters that form bristly spikes in the leaf axis, or at the top of each plant. The margins of these leaves are smooth with a broader base, pointed tip and are oval to diamond in shape. Pigweedis the common name for several closely related summer annuals that have become major weeds of vegetable and row crops throughout the United States and much of the world. Herbicide recommendations for management of noxious pigweeds in corn, soybean, and forages. For questions about accessibility and/or if you need additional accommodations for a specific document, please send an email to ANR Communications & Marketing at anrcommunications@anr.msu.edu. Watsonia, 4:261-280. Small, greenish flowers are found in dense terminal and axillary clusters of short, thick and prickly spikes. Know what pigweed looks like. Redroot pigweed, a summer annual broadleaf plant, is found up to 7900 feet (2400 m) in the Central Valley, northwestern region, central-western region, southwestern region, Modoc Plateau, and most likely in other California areas. High soil temperatures … Redroot is a common weed in gardens, roadsides, agriculture and waste areas. Smooth pigweed (A. hybridus L.) Differs by having hairless leaves, hairless to slightly hairy upper stems, and seedheads with narrower, less dense and less prickly spikes. It has a long, fleshy, reddish to pink taproot. Redroot pigweed was easier to control with both products than velvetleaf. Yield Data The ten worst weeds of field crops. Green Pigweed has a habit of germinating and growing much faster, and in greater competitiveness, than Redroot and Smooth Pigweed. Wats.) Also, redroot pigweed flowers are held in short, thick terminal branched spikes and not in elongated, stiff, mostly unbranched spikes as for Powell amaranth. Handle the task when plants are less than 3 inches tall, with roots still short, to prevent accidentally uprooting neighboring garden plants. In total there are about 900 species of pigweed, which include two very common weeds called Water Hemp and Palmer Amaranth. Feltner KC, 1970. Herbicides with the active ingredient 2,4-D or dicamba are selective meaning they will kill the pigweed and not the desired plants. School Integrated Pest Management; Utah Plant Pest Diagnostic Lab; Cooperative Agricultural Pest Survey ; Redroot Pigweed Amaranthus retroflexus. This information is for educational purposes only. Redroot pigweed, smooth pigweed, and Powell amaranth are three closely-related amaranths that have become serious cropland weeds throughout the United States and into southern Canada. Redroot Pigweed. Erect, up to 6-foot-tall herbaceous stems are pale green to reddish and usually nearly red at the base. Small, dark, red to brown seed. Because redroot pigweed seedlings are very small and fragile, stirring of the top 1-2 inches of soil 2 to 4 times within the first month following tillage is highly effective at removing most of the individuals that will emerge during the season. Waterhemp stem. Pigweed. Small, greenish flowers are found in dense terminal and axillary clusters of short, thick and prickly spikes. Carelessweed is often called pigweed because swine relish it. Flowers have bracts two to three times the length of the sepals and yield small, round, shiny black seeds. They all can be found in the USA along with southern Canada, and are typically all referred to as “Redroot Pigweed.” This is due to the fact that they are hard to tell apart before they flower. Group 2 resistant redroot pigweed was first confirmed in the province in about 2002. An effective weed management strategy should include knowledge of weed biology, preventing the introduction of new weeds, diligent … Here are a few general suggestions to protect your crops from weeds: There are a few herbicides that the pigweed population is resistant to. Redroot pigweed and smooth pigweed are monoecious, whereas waterhemp and Palmer amaranth are dioecious. We use these technologies for Figure 9. Pigweed, redroot description. In 2016, the weed survey only detected Group 2 resistant pigweed in one of 22 fields that were tested based on random selection. This is because non-selective herbicides kill any plant they come in contact with. Figure 1. Green pigweed tends to have faster germination and growth, and greater competitive ability than redroot or smooth pigweed. Heat LQ pre-seed herbicide provides the first layer of defense against weeds. Centre, Farm Equipment Residual control is often desirable, because multiple flushes of germination can occur. Smooth pigweed leaf (right). Redroot pigweed, for instance, is especially sensitive to low phosphorous levels. Redroot pigweed is named for its red, thick taproot it develops. Pigweed seedlings are easily controlled by cultivation or hoeing. Atrazine in southern Ontario and ALS herbicides (Group 2) in at least 7 countries do not work on Green and Redroot Pigweed. Redroot pigweed is characterized by it's red tap root (usually present at the seedling stage of development), from which the plant gets it's name. Leaves are alternate and simple. In garden beds. … ), Read about the Pesticide Safety & Education Program. It competes against other plants by its rapid growth and prolific seed production. Most pigweed plants are tall, with simple, alternate leaves that are oval- to … Using non-selective herbicides containing the chemicals glyphosate or glufosinate-ammonium works well. 2c) … They may only be used in areas where you wish to clear out all plants. Flowers have bracts two to three times the length of the sepals and yield small, round, shiny black seeds. Field Guide     Weed Management     Pigweed. If pigweed species are consumed in large concentrations in pastures or silage it can poison livestock. Redroot pigweed supports several important crop insect pests, including black cutworm larvae (Agrostis ipsilon), green peach aphid ... Management Approaches. Maximum seed production for Palmer amaranth, common waterhemp, and redroot pigweed was 32,300, 51,800, and 9,500 seeds m −2. Redroot pigweed is a common weed of gardens, cultivated areas, and waste places. Redroot pigweed is widely distributed. Usually up to 5 ft in height, the erect stem has fine short hairs and is freely branched. Redroot pigweed (Figs. The 3 most common species are Redroot, Green and Smooth Pigweed. It is important to know that most herbicide labels do not differentiate between the different varieties of pigweed. Palmer Amaranth and Waterhemp; Horseweed; Common Ragweed; Yellow Nutsedge; Barnyardgrass; Bindweeds: field and hedge bindweed ; Bull Thistle; Canada thistle; Common chickweed; Curly dock; Field Pennycress; Horsenettle; Redroot Pigweed; Wild Mustard; Wild Radish; Witchgrass; Yellow … This handy fact sheet can help you identify members of the pigweed family, including Palmer amaranth, waterhemp, spiny amaranth, smooth pigweed and redroot pigweed. apps and newsletters and across the Internet based on your interests. It’s the go-to program for managing problem weeds, such as cleavers, redroot pigweed, stinkweed, kochia, volunteer canola and wild oats. Smooth pigweed often matures 2-3 weeks later than redroot pigweed, which may restrict its northern range expansion. Each variety of pigweed listed below has a red to pink taproot with a green to reddish stem. redroot pigweed; International Common Names. Ecology Management: Chromosome numbers and phylogenetic aspects. Redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus), a common garden invader, has a long rosy taproot that pulls easily from moist soil. But don’t wallow in despair – control is possible. MSU is an affirmative-action, equal-opportunity employer, committed to achieving excellence through a diverse workforce and inclusive culture that encourages all people to reach their full potential. 1 and 2a), smooth pigweed (Fig. Seeds are produced late summer through fall. 1. Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri), redroot pigweed (A. retroflexus), yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus), and purple nutsedge (C. rotundus) are among the most common and troublesome weeds in southern watermelon fields (Webster 2010; Van Wychen 2016). Back to weed management All photos this page: Steven A. Gower Redroot pigweed Amaranthus retroflexus L. Life cycle: Erect summer annual. III. Ornamental Pest Guide / Redroot Pigweed Redroot pigweed (Howard F. Schwartz, Colorado State University, Bugwood.org) Redroot pigweed flowers (Joseph M. DiTomaso, Bugwood.org) Description. Several species occur, but the most common is redroot pigweed. Pigweeds thrive in hot weather, tolerate drought, respond to high l… Back to identifying Christmas tree weeds. The first leaves of Green Pigweed are typically tapering and somewhat pinches toward the end. Eliminate weeds before they go to seed in rotation crops to prevent the buildup of weed seed in the soil. Soil water thresholds for photoinduction of redroot pigweed germination. Redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus) Redroot pigweed is characterized by it's red tap root (usually present at the seedling stage of development), from which the plant gets it's name. Plants are erect and usually around 3-4' in height, although they can grow larger. Similar species. This infamous weed family includes common waterhemp, Palmer amaranth, and redroot and smooth pigweed. These spines are up to ½ inch … Redroot pigweed seedhead (left). Weed control and sweet … The effect of irrigation regimes and N rates on corn (Zea mays L.) yield and redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L.) growth in sandy soils is not completely understood. The reason why they are so aggressive is because they can produce between 10,000 to 30,000 seeds per plant, and can lie dormant in the soil for up to 40 years. Leaves are alternate, dull green, egg- to diamond-shaped with a small notch at the tip, smooth to wavy margins and long petioles. Differs by having dark green, diamond-shaped, mostly hairless and somewhat glossy leaves; stems with few to no hairs; and seedheads with fewer, very prickly, erect and elongated spikes. Redroot Pigweed has a noticeably shorter, thicker and compacted inflorescence, that only extends a short distance above the first branches of the panicle. This website uses tracking tools, including cookies. Seeds germinate spring through summer. Follow soil test recommendations for lime and fertilizer. Pigweed has the potential to inflict complete crop failure if not controlled. The very small, dark brown to black seeds are flattened and somewhat rounded. Herbicide recommendations for management of noxious pigweeds in corn, soybean, and forages. Do not panic if you find pigweed on your land. Chemical control is also used on resistant pigweed; discuss these treatments with the veterinarian in order to get a recommendation for environmental management or referral to … Usually up to 5 ft in height, the erect stem has fine short hairs and is freely branched. Also known as Pigweed or Amaranth. Print a PDF of this page: Redroot pigweed. The study also reported that spiny pigweed could produce an average 113,960 seeds per plant. Carelessweeds are annual weedy herbs belonging to the amaranth family. Palmer amaranth is one of several weedy pigweed (Amaranthus) species found across Iowa. The leaves are simple, alternate, dull green, with hairs on the veins on the underside. Seedlings of all common pigweeds are similar. Weed Management Before Planting . MSU is an affirmative-action, equal-opportunity employer. Redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus) Smooth pigweed (Amaranthus hybridus) Powell amaranth (Amaranthus powellii) Spiny amaranth (Amaranthus spinosus) Tumble pigweed (Amaranthus albus) Prostrate pigweed (Amaranthus blitoides) Waterhemp (common) (Amaranthus rudis) There are a number of pigweed species with varying leaf shapes and characteristics, so it’s important to study up. http://www.omafra.gov.on.ca/english/crops/facts/ontweeds/smooth_pigweed.htm, https://gobotany.newenglandwild.org/species/axyris/amaranthoides/, http://www.omafra.gov.on.ca/english/crops/facts/ontweeds/redroot_pigweed.htm, http://www.ipm.ucdavis.edu/PMG/WEEDS/pigweeds.html, http://www.oisat.org/pests/weeds/broad_leaf_weeds/pigweeds.html, http://science.jrank.org/pages/278/Amaranth-Family-Amaranthaceae.html, http://www.omafra.gov.on.ca/english/crops/facts/01-009.htm, http://www.gardeningknowhow.com/plant-problems/weeds/prostrate-pigweed-control.htm, http://extension.psu.edu/pests/weeds/weed-id/redroot-pigweed. This past summer, pigweed was challenging to control and subsequent sampling of problem fields confirmed resistance in four of the five fields. The apical meristem has been killed (the plant will not regrow). Redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus) Smooth pigweed (Amaranthus hybridus) Powell amaranth (Amaranthus powellii) Spiny amaranth (Amaranthus spinosus) Tumble pigweed (Amaranthus albus) Prostrate pigweed (Amaranthus blitoides) Waterhemp (common) (Amaranthus rudis) Waterhemp (tall) (Amaranthus tuberculatus) 5' Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) Title: Microsoft PowerPoint - Pigweed … Although 5–14% of redroot pigweed and waterhemp seeds have survived 9–12 years burial at 8-inch depth in Nebraska (Burnside et al., 1996), others have reported that pigweed seeds are fairly short lived (3–4 years) in the soil in more humid regions such as Mississippi and Illinois (Buhler and Hartzler, 2001; Egley and Williams, 1990; Steckel et al., 2007). Sprouted pigweed seeds can be added to salads while the tiny pigweed seeds can be roasted, crushed and used as cereal substitute. Smooth and redroot pigweed have an upright habit like Palmer amaranth and waterhemp, but both have at least slightly hairy stems. Scout each field regularly for weeds, plant disease, and insect problems, and control them when necessary. Overall, pigweed is an aggressive weed that is known for being extremely invasive in grain crop fields, contributing to the reduction of their yield. Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri), redroot pigweed (A. retroflexus), yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus), and purple nutsedge (C. rotundus) are among the most common and troublesome weeds in southern watermelon fields (Webster 2010; Van Wychen 2016). and redroot pigweed, which accumulated more biomass and height in the same time frame. 5. 2b), and Powell amaranth (Fig. Reducing opportunities for establishment can control this weed. Leaves: Cotyledons are linear with a prominent midvein and reddish tinted undersides. Till, cut, or hand-pull before large infestations establish and a seed bank develops. Jeffrey W. Dwyer, Director, MSU Extension, East Lansing, MI 48824. A study recently published in Weed Science demonstrates that glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth completely colonized Arkansas cotton fields in just three years, making harvest impossible. “Just tell yourself you are not going t… - If cultivating land, do so at night as this will reduce, but not eliminate, the chances of pigweed seeds germinating. Mature plants grow upright 2 to 3 feet tall. Prostrate and Tumble Pigweed do not have terminal spikes, and both are smaller in stature. Michigan State University Extension programs and materials are open to all without regard to race, color, national origin, gender, gender identity, religion, age, height, weight, disability, political beliefs, sexual orientation, marital status, family status or veteran status. Identifying Characteristics: Seed: ovate, slightly flattened seed; oily, shiny appearance; dark brownish red to black in color; slightly notched at hilum Seedling: softly pubescent stem and leaves; egg-shaped, alternate leaves; tip of leaf notched slightly Powell amaranth seedling (middle). Redroot Pigweed Amaranth. It has a long, fleshy, reddish to pink taproot. Annual. Photos and descriptions of Redroot pigweed. Powell amaranth stem (right). It is quite common to find all species infesting the same areas. With little other vegetative competition, it can reach heights much greater. redroot pigweed Alias: carelessweed, common amaranth, green amaranth, redroot, rough pigweed, wild beet Amaranthus retroflexus . Smooth Pigweed is resistant to Atrazine and ALS in eastern United States, but it has not been recorded as resistant in Canada. Health Canada’s Pest Management Regulatory Agency (PMRA), ... redroot pigweed, volunteer canola, and wild mustard in barley, field corn, field pea, soybean, and wheat (spring, durum, and winter) and in chemfallow. - Putting sorghum in your plant rotation has the capability of reducing the emergence and growth of pigweed plants. Palmer Amaranth and Waterhemp Due to the fact that pigweed is a broadleaf weed, the use of any broadleaf weed killers will work sufficiently. Distinguishing herbicide resistant and non-resistant pigweed cannot be done visually. Green Pigweed has slightly less hair than other varieties of pigweed. Often lower stems are also reddish in color. Apply post herbicide when pigweed is small (<4 inches tall). Identify the problem. Amaranthus in Britain. The first leaves that grow from this particular variety are rounded. a variety of reasons, including to recognize new and past website users, to customize of ref. These less common varieties are Prostrate Pigweed and Tumble Pigweed. Leaves: Cotyledons are linear with a prominent midvein and reddish tinted undersides. Due to its difficult-to-control nature and its multiple flushes of germination, combined residual control is often necessary.

redroot pigweed management

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