Posidonia took up residence … The use of the term ‘algae’, which is neither a monophyletic clade nor a functional group or a morphological group is avoided here. 1998). a) Sea olive, still attached to the plant, Fig.14. Overlap between dolphin habitat and red mud deposits in the GOC raises concern, considering the immunotoxic and other detrimental effects of environmental pollutants (Desforges et al., 2016; Jepson et al., 2016). In Port-Cros Bay, an increase occurred from the 1960s to the late 1970s, followed by a decrease in the 1980s and a renewed increase in the 1990s (Azzolina 1987; unpublished data). To find out more about the cookies we use and how to delete them, see our privacy policy. These meadows provide important ecological functions and services and support a highly diverse community, including species of economic interest. These low activities should be due to the presence of endogenous inhibitors or high protease activities altering the in vitro measurement of enzyme activities. Posidonia oceanica seedlings produced from beach-cast fruits were planted in an area where this Mediterranean seagrass was lost as a consequence of fish-farming. Posidonia oceanica, a unique species that provides uncountable benefits. This exceptional stranding of the fruits, in this period and in such large quantities, due to the rough conditions of the sea and the strong winds, is however not a … In contrast to Posidonia oceanica, Posidonia australis flowers frequently and produces large numbers of seeds (Figure 3-1). Balls of fibrous material from its old foliage are found washed up on the beaches. It plays an important role in oxygenating and clarifying coastal waters, provides a habitat for a rich diversity of plants and animals, acts as a safe breeding-area for many species, and protects beaches from erosion. Flowers of P. australis are held above the canopy whereas those of P. sinuosa are below the canopy (Cambridge and Kuo 1979). (2011) reported phenolic compounds are more concentrated in young leaves of P. oceanica. Bottlenose dolphins are opportunistic feeders and they can occur in areas heavily impacted by human activities as long as prey is available (Bearzi et al., 2008b; Bonizzoni et al., 2014). Use of Posidonia oceanica seedlings from beach-cast fruits for seagrass planting Usually, an observer can estimate fairly consistently to 1 decimal place without difficulty (i.e., rank on a scale from 1.0 to 5.0), G. Bearzi, ... O. Gimenez, in Advances in Marine Biology, 2016. In the open sea, P. lividus occurs mainly on solid rocks, boulders and in meadows of the seagrasses Posidonia oceanica and Zostera marina (Mortensen, 1927; Tortonese, 1965; Ebling et al., 1966; Verlaque, 1987a). Table 3-8. Near Marseilles, a significant increase occurred from the early 1960s to the late 1970s, possibly related to pollution increases (Kempf 1962; Harmelin et al. In the Mediterranean, deep waters are nearly isothermal throughout the year (12 to 14°C), so that temperature is not a limiting factor. 1981). The Neptune grass fields (Posidonia oceanica) are one of the most characteristics communities of the Mediterranean coastline. Putting a small amount of air in the plastic bags facilitates getting the seagrass samples into the plastic bag. Pennings and Svedberg (1993) reported Diadema setosum and Echinometra sp. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. 1999), where it is often found with Z. noltii. Use a mesh bag to store the samples in their individual plastic bags underwater so that the divers do not have to surface and return to the boat after every sample. Identified deterrents are listed in Table 9.2, although correlations between secondary metabolites in food and feeding by sea urchins suggests function, isolation of and tests with secondary metabolites are essential to establish their role (Hay and Fenical, 1988). Members of the ostenfeldii group of Posidonia also produce flowers and fruit (Orth 1999). Despite the extent of seagrass studies particularly in Australia, … (1988), Fernandez (1989), Rico (1989), Kovitou (1991), Boudouresque et al. Thus they are found in locations were the water current is sufficient to deliver food particles (Zabala, 1986). The rapid development of molecular biology techniques has documented on the multiplicity and diversity of plant P450 genes and allowed the cloning of more than 100 genes to date (Durst and Nelson 1995). Previous experiences of planting Posidonia oceanica using adult plants have been carried out using both vertical frag-ments (Augier et al., 1996; Piazzi et al., 1998; Meinesz et al., 1992; Measure the thickness of the leaf sheaths, from the apex of the vertical shoot to the base of the shoots, of the 10 oldest shoots in the sample under a dissecting microscope. It took three years for densities of P. lividus to recover after the ‘Erika’ oil spill (Barille-Boyer et al., 2004). the jet-ski race held in the GOC in 2013; http://www.hjsba.gr, http://www.jetraidgreece.com) pose a high risk of collision and disturbance, and they should be banned. Steinberg and van Altena (1992) found phlorotannins actually enhanced feeding by T. gratilla. Rates from $96. Like many true aquatics, it is the movement of the water that ensures the pollination and seed dispersal of this interesting plant. Most interest has focused on feeding deterrents as chemical defenses of plants to sea urchins (Hay, 1988; Hay and Fenical, 1992). Es caracteritza per la formació de feixos en què les fulles creixen gairebé a l’altura del sediment. 1995). in rocky vertical walls between 3 and 10 m depths, near Tossa de Mar, Catalonia (Turon et al. High levels of metals were found in seagrass (Posidonia oceanica) from the Bay of Antikyra (Malea et al., 1994), an area where levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediments, and concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs) in Mediterranean mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) were among the highest sampled throughout Greece (Botsou and Hatzianestis, 2012; Tsangaris et al., 2010, 2011). In the western Mediterranean the complex of P. oceanica, Cymodocea nodosa and Zostera noltii occupy fairly predictable zones from the intertidal Z. noltii to C. nodosa and at depth, meadows of P. oceanica. One diver should hold the bag and clipboard (with waterproof paper for recording), while the other places the quadrat, counts, measures and cuts the shoots. On one occasion, bottlenose dolphins in the Bay of Antikyra were observed surfacing covered by red mud, indicating bottom feeding on the coastal deposit. Paracentrotus lividus is distributed throughout the Mediterranean Sea and in the north eastern Atlantic, from Scotland and Ireland to southern Morocco and the Canary Islands, including the Azores. Cronin and Hay (1996) found recently fed A. punctulata avoided prepared food containing natural concentrations of pachydictyol A, a diaterpene found in brown algae, but individuals starved for three days did not. (1982), Nédélec (1982), Kitching and Thain (1983), Verlaque and Nédélec (1983b), Verlaque (1984, 1987b), Knoepffler-Péguy et al. Ruppia cirrhosa (formerly spiralis) occurs in the open ocean and in shallow regions of the North-Western Mediterranean (Ribera et al. In the English Channel, lower and upper lethal temperatures are 4°C and 29°C. The main threats for the meadows are the maritime constructions, the pollution of near-shore waters, the … At Lough Ine (Ireland), density increased conspicuously from 1962 to 1965, then declined until 1975; another peak in 1979 was followed by a sharp decline (Ebling et al. Conversely, rapid changes in density of large individuals can be observed. Caulinia oceanica sensu R. Brown (non DC.) Recent studies in the Black Sea have found a collection of more temperate species: Zostera marina, Zostera noltii, and Ruppia maritima, with two typically brackish water species being found in marine waters, Potamogeton pectinatus and Ruppia spiralis (Milchakova 1999). Balls of fibrous material from its foliage, known as egagropili, wash up to nearby shorelines. Posidonia oceanica és una planta superior; això vol dir que, a diferència de les algues, té fulles, tija i arrels, i també fa flors i fruits. 1992; 1995) were very low, constraining analysis of many samples to decrease the unreliability of results. It produces small green flowers. L' altina o posidònia ( Posidonia oceanica) és una planta aquàtica del gènere Posidonia endèmica de la Mediterrània. Reported seagrass phenology in Region X, South Australia. L’avenir de Posidonia oceanica Ses herbiers sont protégés par la loi en France (Arrêté du 19 Juillet 1988, Décret du 20 Septembre 1989), en Catalogne (Ordre du 31 Juillet 1991) et dans la Communauté Valencienne (Ordre du 23 Janvier 1992). Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. m−2 two months later (Delmas 1992). In the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, certain authors argued that echinoids were not able to burrow into hard rocks (Caillaud, 1856; Fischer, 1864; Otter, 1932; Mortensen, 1943; Kempf, 1962; Gamble, 1965; Neill and Larkum, 1966; Goss-Custard et al., 1979; Torunski, 1979; Martinell, 1981; Cuenca, 1987). (1996), Aubin (2004), Ruitton et al. 1994) and within the Tyrrhenian Sea (Acunto et al. Populations of P. lividus can be relatively stable for several years, e.g. Although important variations in the P450 isoforms from different plant species have been demonstrated, some of them such as the cinnamic acid 4-hydroxylase (CA4H) appears to be present in all higher plants. Enzymes involved in each step of the pathway are indicated as follow: PAL = phenylalanine ammonia lyase, CA4H = cinnamic acid 4-hydroxylase, 4CL = 4-coumarate:CoA ligase. When released from the infrutescence, fruits can drifts randomly for … Environmental concerns caused by disposal of red mud relate to its high alkalinity and sodicity (Paramguru et al., 2005; Power et al., 2011) and its documented hazards to sea life (Blackman and Wilson, 1973; Dauvin, 2010; Dethlefsen and Rosenthal, 1973; Pagano et al., 2002). Individuals in shallower water, under very exposed conditions and/or in intertidal rock pools, resist dislodgment by waves by burrowing in the substratum (e.g., sandstone, limestone, granite, basalt but not hard slate), creating cup-shaped cavities where they live permanently or temporarily. Bryozoans feed on planktonic particles captured by ciliated lophophore tentacles, which they can beat to create a current to the mouth (Ryland, 2005). 1997). Posidonia oceanica Distribució Les praderies de posidònia oceanica que es troben al parc natural de ses Salines , entre Eivissa i Formentera , van ser declarades com a Patrimoni de la Humanitat de la UNESCO , … A long-term data series indicates that meadow flowering occurs on average every five years at a basin scale, with massive seed production events recorded every 8–10 years linked to high summer temperatures 19 . They are sometimes so numerous and close together that the substrate is completely honeycombed. Larger individuals may or may not return to shelters after foraging, depending on their size and density of predatory teleosts (Sala, 1996; Palacín et al., 1997). Posidonia oceanica is a plant adapted to underwater life and a key element to preserve the Mediterranean ecosystems Posidonia oceanica, commonly known as Seagrass, is an angiosperm plant, adapted to underwater life.It is a key element to preserve the Mediterranean ecosystems. The sea grass Posidonia oceanica should be considered as a sentinel plant for monitoring Mediterranean sea pollution. Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile is a seagrass species endemic to the Mediterranean Sea that forms dense and extensive underwater meadows with leaves that can attain 1 metre in height. If working in a remote location without electricity, bring along a herbarium press and newspaper. (2010), Cebrian et al. Because red mud is a valuable resource that can be reused (e.g. The flowers, peculiar and inconspicuous, are hermaphroditic (they have male and female sexual organs). Posidonia oceanica is a slow growing seagrass found at depths of 5 to 35 meters along the Mediterranean coastline. (2006), Cacabelos et al. Flowers of P. australis are held above the canopy whereas those of P. sinuosa are below the canopy (Cambridge and Kuo 1979). En aigües de Mataró, trobem prats de dos tipus: Els dominats per Posidonia oceanica i els dominats per Cymodocea nodosa. Balls of fibrous material from its foliage, known as egagropili, wash up to nearby shorelines. In these lagoons, as in intertidal rock pools, the maximal size of the individuals is always far smaller than in the open sea. the alga. Les fulles tenen forma de cinta aplanada, aproximadament fan 1 cm d’ample i … For example 1 set may be used for low abundance meadows (e.g., Halophila) and another set for high abundance meadows (e.g., Zostera) as this allows greater accuracy for biomass estimates. Long-term changes in density have also been recorded in several areas. Rhizomes 5–15 mm thick, ... Fruit (Fig. However, there are several other abundant species in this region which have received considerable investigation. In contrast to Posidonia oceanica, Posidonia australis flowers frequently and produces large numbers of seeds (Figure 3-1). Posidonia oceanica is generally considered the dominant species of the 9 in the Mediterranean Sea. In the present study, distribution modelling showed no strong correlation between red mud deposits and dolphin occurrence. Larvae can be advected downward to depths of several hundred meters. Its leaves are tape-shaped with a width of approximately 1 cm and a length of between 30 and 120 cm. Earlier studies from our laboratory have shown a good correlation (0.84) between CA4H activities and the content of PAH in sediments of coastal mediterranean sea (Narbonne et al. Future studies of fishing capacity should consider an appropriate assessment of the year-round industrial fishing effort and landings, also taking into account instances of illegal fishing and occurrence of incidental mortality in fishing gear of dolphins and other protected species (Macías López et al., 2012; Marçalo et al., 2015). Hay and Fenical (1992) concluded neither chemical structure nor pharmacological activity of a compound can be used to predict its effect on an herbivore. Posidonia oceanica fruits were collected on beaches in the Murcia Region (Spain) in May 2016 under the authorisation of the Autonomous Spanish Community of the Murcia Region. 1). The series of leaf-sheath thicknesses derived can then be analyzed as described above to remove short-term and long-term variability, and to highlight the interannual cycles from which the mean number of rhizome segments produced annually, and thereby the plastochrone interval, is derived. Seaweed sex pheromones suppressed feeding in amphipods but not in Arbacia punctulata (Hay et al., 1998). For sturdy plants, such as Posidonia oceanica and Enhalus acoroides, use of a narrow-bladed saw may be necessary to cut the rhizomes around the sample quadrat, retrieving both aboveground and attached belowground material together. Irvine (1973) reported S. droebachiensis and S. franciscanus consumed Nereocystis luetkeana and Agarum spp. La struttura si trova sul porto turistico a 5 minuti a piedi dal centro storico e dalla spiaggia di San Giovanni. This exceptional stranding of the fruits, in this period and in such large quantities, due to the rough conditions of the sea and the strong winds, is however not a good sign: if the plants in the sea lose their fruit, it means that the blooms will not be so abundant . Flowers of P. australis are held above the canopy whereas those of P. sinuosa are below the canopy (Cambridge and Kuo 1979). For visual estimation of biomass, some practice is required in order to successfully establish the standard ranks needed to provide estimates of biomass that correlate well with the measured biomass values. However, indirect effects such as contamination up the food web are possible (Jepson et al., 2016). 1: Strongly ‘preferred’ species. Erickson et al. It is a true plant with the same external organization as the superior plants: roots, stem, leaves and capacity to produce flowers and fruits with seeds. Data from Traer (1980, 1984), Cuomo et al. 1995). For example, between 1992 and 1994, P. lividus densities were significantly lower in a protected area (a marine reserve of Catalonia with high fish densities) than in an adjacent unprotected area, supporting the hypothesis that fish predation was the most important factor controlling sea-urchin populations (Sala 1996; Sala and Zabala 1996). 1985; Azzolina 1987, 1988). 4: Strongly ‘avoided’ species. In multi-species meadows, a combination of the approaches (core sampler or unsubdivided quadrat sampling for the most abundant species, subdivided quadrat sampling for sparser species, and transect sampling for rare species) may be necessary due to a wide density range between the species present. Anne Schoendorf, ... Jean-Pierre Salaün, in Biomarkers in Marine Organisms, 2001. Posidonia oceanica is a marine phanerogam and therefore reproduces sexually through flowers and fruits. Note that, consecutive sheaths are located at alternate positions along the shoot. (1994) reported powdered calcium carbonate in food with low organic content deterred feeding in Diadema antillarum but not in food with high organic content. Deterrents do not necessarily prevent ingestion. Furthermore, it has been shown that the content of phenolic constituents of posidonia tissues such as tannins and polyphenols, was strongly increased in plants growing in polluted area (Agostini et al. The rapid and strong inducibility of members of the cytochrome P450 superfamily by xenobiotics was has been considered for developing efficient and sensitive biomarkers to detect environmental pollution (Garrigues et al. Members of the ostenfeldii group of Posidonia also produce flowers and fruit (Orth 1999). 1966; Kitching and Thain 1983). In the Mediterranean, a sea characterized by low amplitude tides, when the sea level drops to unusually low levels due to a particularly high atmospheric pressure, emerged individuals of P. lividus usually die quite quickly. The thickness of leaf sheaths of Posidonia oceanica, which remain attached to the rhizomes long after the leaves are shed, has been shown to exhibit periodic changes (Pergent 1990). It has had, nonetheless, many name, before the establishment of a systematic nomenclature by Linneo in the 18 th century. Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile is a seagrass species endemic to the Mediterranean Sea that forms dense and extensive underwater meadows with leaves that can attain 1 metre in height. In the eastern Mediterranean, Halophila stipulacea is increasing in distribution since its introduction from the Red Sea after the opening of the Suez Canal; this species was recorded in Malta in 1970, and then in Italy in the 1990s (Cancemi et al. Underwater noise and disturbance are known threats to cetaceans and marine life generally (Nowacek et al., 2007; Würsig and Richardson, 2009). The greatest change occurred between August and September, 1992, when it dropped from 31 to 5 ind. ‘Year’ means year-round or of unknown season. The coordinator of the project SEAFOREST LIFE, DREAm Italia - Progetti europei, together with the researchers Ispra - Higher Institute for Protection and Research ..., collect the first beached fruits of Posidonia oceanica in a beach of Stintino (SS)! Extracts of the seagrass Posidonia oceanica, which contains phenol, deterred feeding in Sphaerechinus granularis and also, to a lesser extent, in Paracentrotus lividus and Arbacia lixula (Vergés et al., 2007a). The posidonia oceanica is linked to Mediterranean culture. Exceptionally cold winters can kill individuals living in rock pools (Bouxin, 1964). Frederick T. Short, Carlos M. Duarte, in Global Seagrass Research Methods, 2001. Dense populations have occurred in the polluted Bay of Brest, Brittany, near the mouth of an urban waste discharge at Rabat, Morocco, in the outer harbor of Marseilles and in the heavily polluted Berre Lagoon, near Marseilles. That is why they are called «sea olives» (Fig.14) Fig.14. In Italy, its fruit is called the olive of the sea. Its surprising absence, or relative scarcity, in meadows of Cymodocea nodosa, though this seagrass is a strongly ‘preferred’ food (Table 21.1), might be due to either the unsuitability of the sand bottom between shoots of C. nodosa for locomotion or a high predation pressure due to the absence of structural refuges analogous to the P. oceanica ‘matte’ (Traer, 1980; Prado et al., 2009). Anne Schoendorf, ... Jean-Pierre Salaün, in, Frederick T. Short, ... Christine Pergent-Martini, in, Diana I. Walker, ... Ronald C. Phillips, in, Methods for the measurement of seagrass growth and production, John M. Lawrence, ... Stephen A. Watts, in, Developments in Aquaculture and Fisheries Science, Charles F. Boudouresque, Marc Verlaque, in, The Biology, Ecology and Societal Importance of Marine Bryozoa, Pagès-Escolà Marta, Mark J. Costello, in, Reference Module in Earth Systems and Environmental Sciences, Methods for the measurement of seagrass abundance and depth distribution, Mediterranean Marine Mammal Ecology and Conservation, Paramguru et al., 2005; Power et al., 2011, Blackman and Wilson, 1973; Dauvin, 2010; Dethlefsen and Rosenthal, 1973; Pagano et al., 2002, Paramguru et al., 2005; Pontikes and Angelopoulos, 2013, Botsou and Hatzianestis, 2012; Tsangaris et al., 2010, 2011, Bearzi et al., 2008b; Bonizzoni et al., 2014, Desforges et al., 2016; Jepson et al., 2016, Macías López et al., 2012; Marçalo et al., 2015, Nowacek et al., 2007; Würsig and Richardson, 2009, Beckers et al., 2015; Taylor et al., 2011, Verduin and Walker (in press), Smith and Walker (in prep), Rhodobionta, Archaeplastida (‘red algae’), Chlorobionta, Archaeplastida (‘green algae’), Magnoliophyta, Archaeplastida (‘seagrasses’), Photosynthetic Stramenopiles (‘brown algae’). It takes its origin from a terrestrial species resembling our present bulrushes. In the autumn of 1993, an exceptional rainfall (450 mm in 48 h) occurred at the Urbinu Lagoon, Corsica, and its watershed area, resulting in salinities as low as 7 and in mass mortality of P. lividus (Fernandez et al., 2003, 2006). 1991). Large bryozoans can be found attached to rocky seabed and walls, occupying exposed or epibiotic positions, such as the case of Pentapora fascialis, and inside caves, such as Myriapora truncata. In the Bay of Biscay, density was high from 1905 to 1907, very low in 1925, then high again from 1935 to 1950 (Fischer-Piette 1955). The fishing fleet operating in the GOC is predominantly small scale. Posidonia oceanica is an important part of the Mediterranean ecosystem. Non-polar extracts from U. lactuca deterred feeding, while non-polar extracts from both species stimulated feeding. Posidonia Oceanica thrives in clean waters, and its presence is a marker for lack of pollution. Its upper limit is determined by desiccation. Ecosystem modelling would be a valuable tool to investigate trophic interactions and fisheries-related ecological perturbations (Piroddi et al., 2010, 2011b). Posidonia oceanica usually reproduces asexually. The fruit is free floating and known in Italy as 'the olive of the sea' (l'oliva di mare). Beckers et al., 2015; Taylor et al., 2011). An external genetic input of Posidonia oceanica fruits dispersed by currents in the Ligurian Sea (Western Mediterranean) was investigated. 1989). Most marine bryozoan species inhabit shallow waters, and some range as deep as 8000 m in the Indian and Pacific Ocean (Hayward, 1981). To overcome this difficulty, we have decided to prepare a cDNA library in order to isolate mainly the cDNA gene encoding the CA4H from Posidonia. Despite the extent of seagrass studies particularly in Australia, much of this work has been focussed on distribution, biomass and productivity. També es diu alga de vidriers, encara que biològicament parlant no és pas una alga sinó una planta superior amb arrel, tija, fulles, flors i fruits. It blossoms in the autumn and the fruit it produces is known as the "olive of the sea". (1988), Odile et al. Finally, P. lividus withstands high levels of heavy metal pollution and even accumulates them, although its growth rate is reduced (Augier et al., 1989; Delmas, 1992; San Martín, 1995). On arrival at the laboratory, place the samples in a drying oven and process as indicated above. Aquarium experiments have shown P. lividus is sensitive to ammonia (Lawrence et al., 2003) but at concentrations more likely in aquaculture facilities than in the natural environment. 1). Further, cargos and ships up to approximately 100 m, as well as motor yachts of all sizes, have been regularly observed crossing dolphin habitat, sometimes at high speeds. The bottoms of the burrows are free of encrusting coralline (Rhodobionta), whereas the walls are not. In general, a correlation coefficient of 0.80 or greater is recommended. Within-plant variation in chemical deterrents can occur. but not the sulfuric acid-containing alga Desmarestia viridis when all algae were provided in the laboratory. La Posidonia Oceanica è un'ottima soluzione per la tua permanenza in città. m−2 (Turon et al. (2006) found green algae (Ulva lactuca, Caulerpa prolifera) were unpalatable to E. lucunter. Many observations of flowering are anecdotal, and the literature often does not contain the detailed sequence of flowering (Table 3-8). b) Dissected sea olive, showing the mature seed. In contrast to Posidonia oceanica, Posidonia australis flowers frequently and produces large numbers of seeds (Figure 3-1). 1995) and in a meadow of Posidonia oceanica, near Marseilles (San Martin 1995). In Brittany, densities have declined abruptly since the 1950s or 1960s, as a result of both overharvesting and local proliferation of the predatory starfish Marthasterias glacialis (Allain 1975; Le Gall 1987). Indeed, it is uncommon on sandy and detritic bottoms, bottoms on which individuals cluster on isolated stones, large shells and various refuses (Zavodnik, 1980). Biosynthetic pathway for the phenylpropanoid derivatives. 1966; Southward and Southward 1975; Le Gall 1987; Byrne 1990; Delmas 1992). Posidonia oceanica, commonly known as Neptune grass or Mediterranean tapeweed, is a seagrass species that is endemic to the Mediterranean Sea. (1993), Knoepffler-Péguy and Nattero (1996), Lemée et al. It forms large underwater meadows that are an important part of the ecosystem. In addition, larvae can tolerate pressures more than one order of magnitude higher than where the adults occur. Year-to-year changes in density occur very frequently.

posidonia oceanica fruit

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