The role of the Governor is to act as the de facto head of state, and they are usually responsible for appointing the head of government, and senior political positions in the territory. The Virgin Islands are also called as BVI or British Virgin Islands to differentiate them from the Virgin Islands owned by the U.S. As far as current British overseas territories go, these include land in the Antarctic as well as Anguilla, Bermuda, British Indian Ocean territory, the British Virgin Islands, the Cayman Islands, the Falkland Islands, Gibraltar, Montserrat, the Pitcairn Islands, St Helena and its Dependencies, South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands, the Sovereign Base Areas of Akrotiri and Dhekelia, and the Turks & Caicos Islands. Bermuda, the British Virgin Islands and the Cayman Islands are the only British Overseas Territories with recognised National Olympic Committees (NOCs); the British Olympic Association is recognised as the appropriate NOC for athletes from the other territories, and thus athletes who hold a British passport are eligible to represent Great Britain at the Olympic Games. The UK's mainland consists of the island of Great Britain (England, Scotland, and Wales) and Northern Ireland. This list compiles the top 10 British colonies in terms of their economies and the benefits that the Britons derived from them. Early English colonies were usually established and administered by companies under charters granted by the monarch. The British Antarctic Territory is a section of the Antarctic under the jurisdiction of the UK. Page 23", https://tcweeklynews.com/tci-regiment-gets-its-first-commanding-officer-p10693-127.htm, "British Indian Ocean Territory Currency", "Representing Britain...and Bermuda | Bermuda Olympics 2012", "Williams' Olympic hopes on hold for 4 more years", "At last! The Union Flag is used in these territories. This "benign neglect," as the British statesman Edmund Burke would call it, encouraged mercantile trade between the colonies and the mother country. Currently[when?] [83], Two areas, Henderson Island in the Pitcairn Islands as well as the Gough and Inaccessible Islands of Tristan Da Cunha are listed as UNESCO World Heritage Sites, and two other territories, the Turks and Caicos Islands, and Saint Helena are on the United Kingdom's tentative list for future UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Three are inhabited only by a transitory population of military or scientific personnel. This is particularly important for cases involving serious crimes and where it is impossible to find a jury who will not know the defendant in a small population island.[51]. Both Canada and the United States have areas in them that were once British colonies. Through a process of decolonisation following the Second World War, most of the British colonies in Africa, Asia and the Caribbean gained independence. [65] In 1983, CUKC status of residents of overseas territories without the right of abode in the UK was replaced by British Dependent Territories citizenship (BDTC) in the newly minted British Nationality Act 1981, a status that does not come with it the right of abode in the UK or any overseas territory. Most countries do not recognise the sovereignty claims of any other country, including Britain's, to Antarctica and its off-shore islands. The Queen's role in the territories is in her role as Queen of the United Kingdom, and not in right of each territory. Following World War II, Britain lost much of its wealth and authority which led to granting India its independence as dissatisfaction with British rule was growing in the colony. While various countries gained their independence over time, even by 1952 when Queen Elizabeth took the throne, over 70 colonies still existed in the empire overseas. The Legendary Pitcairn Islands", "St Helena, Ascension, Tristan da Cunha profiles", "South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands", "Population of Grytviken, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands", "Turks and Caicos Islands Population 2019", "Global Britain and the British Overseas Territories: Resetting the relationship", "Government – Isle of Man Public Services", "Newfoundland History – Early Colonization and Settlement of Newfoundland", "In the Eye of All Trade: Bermuda, Bermudians, and the Maritime Atlantic World, 1680-1783", "House of Commons - Foreign Affairs - Seventh Report", "Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha Constitution Order 2009 (at OPSI)", "LibGuides: United Kingdom Legal Research: British External Territories", "Overseas Territories Joint Ministerial Council 2015 Communique and Progress Report - Publications - GOV.UK", "Britain and the British Antarctic Territory in the wider geopolitics of the Antarctic and the Southern Ocean", "The Overseas Territories: security, success and sustainability", British financial officials in the region for talks with dependent territories, "MP proposes British Overseas Territories be represented in Westminster – MercoPress", "Lib Dems would create an MP for Gibraltar", "UKIP leader defends call for Gibraltar to become part of Britain - Xinhua - English.news.cn", "UK Government White Paper on Overseas Territories, June, 2012. The British believed that because they had superior weaponry and were therefore more technologically advanced than the Africans, that they had a right to colonize and exploit the resources of the Africans in the name of promoting civilization. In 1583 he embarked … Most of the permanently inhabited territories are internally self-governing, with the UK retaining responsibility for defence and foreign relations. This list may not reflect recent changes ( learn more ). This eventually led to the American War of Independence, also known as the Revolutionary War, which took place from 1775 to 1783. [90], A Stoplight Parrotfish in Princess Alexandra Land and Sea National Park, Providenciales, Turks and Caicos Islands, Click on a coloured area to see an article about English in that country or region, Territories under the jurisdiction and sovereignty of the United Kingdom, "BOTs" redirects here. Prior to 1 January 1983, the territories were officially referred to as British Crown Colonies. With the exceptions of the British Antarctic Territory and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands (which host only officials and research station staff) and the British Indian Ocean Territory (used as a military base), the Territories retain permanent civilian populations. In addition, most territories have customs, immigration, border, and coastguard agencies. These include maritime commerce, settlement of the continent and of the West Indies, and the projection of naval power via the colony's privateers, among other areas.[39][40]. Administration and policy changed during the century from the haphazard arrangements of the 17th and 18th centuries to the sophisticated system characteristic of Joseph Chamberlain’s tenure (1895–1900) in the Colonial Office. In doing so, this presence grew to be more than just an element of commerce. [61], Two national parties, UKIP and the Liberal Democrats, have endorsed calls for direct representation of overseas territories in the UK Parliament, as well as backbench members of the Conservative Party and Labour Party.[62][63]. But now, needing funds, Great Britain turned to a policy of stringent taxation, which the colonies opposed. The United Kingdom Overseas Territories Association (UKOTA) also represents the interests of the territories in London. Ian Hendry and Susan Dickson, "British Overseas Territories Law" (London: Hart Publishing, 2011), Senior British representatives in the constituent protected states, Senior British representatives in the neighbouring Malayan protected states, Senior British representatives in neighbouring protected states, This page was last edited on 1 December 2020, at 09:24. This reclassified the UK's dependent territories as overseas territories and, with the exception of those people solely connected with the Sovereign Base Areas of Cyprus, restored full British citizenship to their inhabitants.[44]. [citation needed] The vast majority of this land area constitutes the almost uninhabited British Antarctic Territory, while the two largest territories by population, the Cayman Islands and Bermuda, account for about half of the total BOT population. St. George's town, founded in Bermuda in that year, remains the oldest continuously inhabited British settlement in the New World (with some historians stating that – its formation predating the 1619 conversion of "James Fort" into "Jamestown" – St. George's was actually the first successful town the English established in the New World). [83], The UK created the largest continuous marine protected areas in the world, the Chagos Marine Protected Area, and announced in 2015 funding to establish a new, larger, reserve around the Pitcairn Islands. December 12, 1787 – Pennsylvania becomes the second state of the United States of America. Pound sterling (widely circulated and accepted universally) Five years after the handover of Hong Kong to China in 1997, the British government amended the 1981 Act to give British citizenship without restrictions to all BDTCs (the status was also renamed BOTC at the same time) except for those solely connected with Akrotiri and Dhekelia (whose residents already held Cypriot citizenship).[67]. Foreign affairs of the overseas territories are handled by the FCO in London. They needed to put the convicts somewhere else. It remains to be seen if any one power will again dominate over such a large portion of the globe, but history does have a tendency to repeat itself. The Middle Colonies . [57], In 2012, the FCO published The Overseas Territories: security, success and sustainability which set out Britain's policy for the Overseas Territories, covering six main areas:[58], Britain and the overseas territories do not have diplomatic representations, although the governments of the overseas territories with indigenous populations all retain a representative office in London. Falkland Islands pound (parity with pound sterling) They can be in the form of colonies where UK administered them. Britain ruled Hong Kong with an agreement that the empire would give Hong Kong back to China 99 years after signing the deal, on July 1 1997, which it did. Today, the US is not governed by the UK, and Canada is a sovereign nation but a constitutional monarchy with the Queen of Canada (Queen Elizabeth) as the head of state. In smaller territories, the senior officer(s) may be recruited or seconded from a UK police force, and specialist staff and equipment may be sent to assist the local force. Gibraltar was the only overseas territory that was part of the EU, although it was not part of the European Customs Union, the European Tax Policy, the European Statistics Zone or the Common Agriculture Policy. It is important to note that the advent of British colonization of Africa coincided with the era of scientific racism as represented by social Darwinism (survival of the fittest). For the smaller territories, the UK may appoint a UK-based lawyer or judge to work on legal cases. Each overseas territory has been granted its own flag and coat of arms by the British monarch. India was a colony of Britain from 1858 to 1947. By the 1750s until 1947, Britain ruled the Subcontinent. During the First Opium War between China and Britain in 1839, China temporarily gave Hong Kong Island over to the British. Dependent or not upon Britain's government, the Commonwealth of Nations' member states all have a … During the European Union (EU) membership of the UK the main body of EU law did not apply and, although certain slices of EU law were applied to the overseas territories as part of the EU's Association of Overseas Countries and Territories (OCT Association), they were not commonly enforceable in local courts. The Middle Colonies were located in the area now described as the Mid-Atlantic and included Delaware, New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania. Euro (accepted unofficially in most establishments), Saint Helenian pound (parity with pound sterling) Lower Canada. If they are not currently under British rule, these locations were at one time. Each territory has its own attorney general, and court system. By Victoria Simpson on September 8 2020 in World Facts. [3][better source needed], As of April 2018[update], three Territories (the Falkland Islands, Gibraltar and the Sovereign Base Areas of Akrotiri and Dhekelia in Cyprus) are the responsibility of the Minister of State for Europe and the Americas; the Minister responsible for the remaining Territories is the Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State for the Overseas Territories and Sustainable Development. The Inner Colonies encompassed a region of space in at least a 10.5 light-year three-dimensional radius from Earth. The governors of the territories may also allow naturalization of non-BOTCs as BOTCs. British Empire, a worldwide system of dependencies— colonies, protectorates, and other territories—that over a span of some three centuries was brought under the sovereignty of the crown of Great Britain and the administration of the British government. Llanito. It has a long history of worldwide exploration and it is known for its historic colonies around the world. A Joint Ministerial Council of UK ministers, and the leaders of the Overseas Territories has been held annually since 2012 to provide representation between UK Government departments and Overseas Territory Governments.[52]. From 1949 to 1983, the nationality status of Citizenship of UK and Colonies (CUKC) was shared by residents of the UK proper and residents of overseas territories, although most residents of overseas territories lost their automatic right to live in the UK after the ratification of Commonwealth Immigrants Act 1968 that year unless they were born in the UK proper or had a parent or a grandparent born in the UK. Today, Hong Kong is governed under the “one country, two systems” relationship. The colonialism began in the end of 16th and 18th century when England had the trading post and overseas possessions. Its offshoot, Bermuda, was settled inadvertently after the wrecking of the Virginia company's flagship there in 1609, with the Virginia Company's charter extended to officially include the archipelago in 1612. British West Africa (1821-1850,1866-1888) British Western Pacific Territories (1877-1976) Australia (1788 – 1911) The company set up relationships that were mutually beneficial for both Britain and locals in India and in other countries throughout the Indian Subcontinent. The British Overseas Territories generally look after their own policing matters and have their own police forces. The fate of these colonies after achieving independence provides a window into the innate ability of various populations… [45] The Queen appoints a representative in each territory to exercise her executive power. These were all places Britain wanted to dominate for access to goods such as rubber, salt, gold, ivory, and other natural products. … The Potato FamineThe Irish hatred of British is age-old, yet justified all the more. The British Empire ruled over many countries in Africa, beginning in 1870. [87][88][89], In January 2016, the UK government announced the intention to create a marine protected area around Ascension Island. 1 Part of the British Overseas Territory of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha. [78], Shara Proctor from Anguilla, Delano Williams from the Turks and Caicos Islands, Jenaya Wade-Fray from Bermuda[79] and Georgina Cassar from Gibraltar strived to represent Team GB at the London 2012 Olympics. It controlled over one fourth of the planet’s population. [43] With 1997 approaching, the United Kingdom and China negotiated the Sino-British Joint Declaration, which led to the whole of Hong Kong becoming a "special administrative region" of China in 1997, subject to various conditions intended to guarantee the preservation of Hong Kong's capitalist economy and its way of life under British rule for at least 50 years after the handover. Although the Crown dependencies of Jersey, Guernsey, and the Isle of Man are also under the sovereignty of the British monarch, they are in a different constitutional relationship with the United Kingdom.

list of british colonies

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